Home / Education / Crypto / Trading / A Beginner’s Guide To The Bitcoin Stock-To-Flow Model
8 min read

A Beginner’s Guide To The Bitcoin Stock-To-Flow Model

Last Updated March 4, 2024 2:40 PM
Andrew Kamsky
Last Updated March 4, 2024 2:40 PM

Key Takeaways

  • The Stock-to-Flow (S2F) model, created by Plan B, assesses asset scarcity by comparing stock to annual production.
  • Applied to Bitcoin, the S2F model emphasizes its ‘digital gold’ potential and provides scarcity-based, long-term price forecasts.
  • Traders leverage S2F insights to inform decisions and adjust strategies in the fluctuating crypto market.
  • Despite its value, the S2F model’s focus on supply and historical data demands cautious interpretation.

Stock-to-flow Model, Explained

The Stock-to-Flow (S2F) model is a concept that was introduced in 2019 by a person under the alias, Plan B, which gained attention in the cryptocurrency domain. Originating from the world of commodities, it refers to the ratio of the current stock of a commodity to its annual production or flow. 

Traditionally applied to precious metals like gold and silver, the model helped in assessing their scarcity and inherent value. Gold, for instance, with its large stock relative to its minimal annual production, boasts a high S2F ratio, underpinning its position as a reliable store of value. As the S2F ratio increases, so does the perceived scarcity and potential value of the commodity in question.

Who Is Plan B?

Plan B remains an anonymous figure, chiefly engaging with the public through Twitter. His name “Plan B” symbolizes Bitcoin’s role as an alternate financial safeguard, standing as a challenger to our present monetary order. 

Components Of The Stock-to-Flow Model

The S2F model stands as a compelling mechanism to understand the inherent value proposition of assets like Bitcoin. At its core, the model is uncomplicated yet profound.


This represents the current amount of Bitcoin available. The supply of this digital asset, encompassing all the Bitcoins that have been mined and are now in circulation.


The flow signifies the new Bitcoins entering the ecosystem, predominantly through the process known as mining. It’s a glimpse into the future supply of Bitcoin.

Source: LookIntoBitcoin


Stock-to-Flow Ratio 

The crux of the model lies here. By dividing the stock by the flow, we arrive at the S2F Ratio. This calculation offers insights into scarcity. A higher ratio implies greater scarcity, which, under the principles of supply and demand, can suggest a higher value proposition.

Why Is Stock-to-Flow Important For Bitcoin And Investors Or Traders?

Bitcoin, requires an understanding of its inherent value drivers due to its age as a digital commodity. The S2F model thus serves as an instrument in this regard for which traders and investors can use to measure its long term value.

Bitcoin’s Decreasing Supply Due To Halving Events 

Bitcoin’s design is unique. Roughly every four years, an event known as the “halving” occurs, slashing the rewards miners receive for verifying transactions and introducing new Bitcoins into the ecosystem by half. 

This deliberate constriction of supply accentuates scarcity. The S2F model underscores this rarity by quantifying it, allowing investors to gauge the potential supply-demand dynamics as the flow decreases.

Comparison With Other Commodities 

Historically, the S2F model has been a mainstay in evaluating traditional commodities like gold and silver. These assets have high stock relative to their flow, leading to a higher S2F ratio and, in turn, greater scarcity. 

When Bitcoin is mapped on the same scale, it reveals a trajectory moving closer to these precious metals, especially post-halving events. This comparison provides investors a familiar framework to evaluate Bitcoin’s value proposition relative to established commodities.

The Proposition Of Bitcoin As ‘Digital Gold’ 

Bitcoin’s scarcity, as highlighted by the S2F model, and its decentralized nature has led to the comparison to ‘digital gold’. 

Just as gold has served as a store of value across millennia, resisting inflation and economic turbulence, Bitcoin is positioned to offer a similar, albeit digital, refuge. The S2F model provides a quantitative backbone to this narrative, solidifying the case for Bitcoin’s place in modern investment portfolios.

Practical Applications For Investors And Traders?

Traders and investors may reference the S2F model forecasts to adjust and finetune their investment tactics. These predictions, grounded in scarcity and supply metrics, offer insights into potential price movements, enabling more informed decision-making in the volatile crypto market landscape.

Understanding The Stock-to-Flow Model’s Price Predictions

The S2F tool proves somewhat valuable for projecting potential future Bitcoin prices. Although numerous indicators offer Bitcoin price predictions, this specific model centers on Bitcoin’s supply dynamics.

Bitcoin Stock To Flow Model | Source: LookIntoBitcoin
Bitcoin Stock-To-Flow Model | Source: LookIntoBitcoin

Bitcoin Price Prediction Using The S2F Model

Many individuals employ the STF chart as a tool for predicting Bitcoin’s future price trajectory. The STF line serves as a projection of potential future valuations for Bitcoin. As per this model, the anticipated price for Bitcoin by the end of 31st December 2022 stands at $78,280. 

A modest increase is predicted for the subsequent year, with an estimated value of $81,956 on 31st December 2023. However, a notable leap is forecasted for the year after, projecting Bitcoin’s price to soar to $306,984 by 31st December 2024. It’s crucial to note that the STF model derives these estimations focusing solely on the supply-side analysis.

Major Benefits Behind The Stock-To-Flow Model

The STF model,has gained numerous enthusiasts support as an invaluable instrument for forecasting long-term price trajectories due to scarcity, highlighting several advantages and strengths inherent to it:

  • Scarcity understanding: The STF Model illustrates the potential price impact of Bitcoin’s predictable supply constraints due to its coded halvings.
  • Predictive insights: The model offers insights into potential future price movements based on the relationship between stock (existing supply) and flow (new supply).
  • Comparative analysis: The model enables comparison of Bitcoin’s scarcity with traditional store-of-value assets, emphasizing its role as ‘digital gold’.
  • Data-Driven approach: Rooted in hard data, the STF Model offers a less speculative perspective than other prediction models.
  • Historical validation: Bitcoin’s price has historically followed the model’s predictions with notable accuracy, underscoring its predictive value.

Considerations Concerning The Stock-To-Flow Model

The STF ratio, particularly as applied to Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, has gotten a significant amount of attention and debate. While many proponents argue that it’s a valuable tool for predicting long-term price movements based on scarcity, several criticisms and problems have been associated with it:

  • Single variable focus: The S2F model predominantly emphasizes the supply side, largely neglecting the demand side. For any asset’s price to rise, there must be both limited supply and increased demand. It is not possible to know the level of demand for Bitcoin in future with certainty.
  • Over-reliance on historical data: The model heavily leans on past data. Assuming that historical patterns will continue into the future can be risky, especially in the fast-evolving crypto landscape.
  • Discrepancies in real-world application: There are assets with high STF ratios that aren’t valuable. For instance, platinum has a higher S2F ratio than gold but is less valuable.
  • Model simplification: The crypto market, and even traditional markets, are influenced by a number of factors including regulation, technological advancements, macroeconomic factors, and geopolitical events. The S2F model might be too simplistic as it doesn’t account for these complexities.
  • Inefficiency in capturing black swan events: Unexpected events (like global pandemics or sudden regulatory changes) can dramatically alter any asset’s price, making models like S2F, which rely on historical patterns, potentially less accurate.
  • Model fitness over time: As more data becomes available, the model might need recalibrations, and its predictions could change. The model’s reliability in predicting long-term price movements decades from now remains untested.


The S2F model stands as a beacon for understanding the interplay between scarcity and value, particularly in the cryptocurrency domain. While it offers valuable insights into potential price trajectories based on supply dynamics, like all models, it’s essential to approach its predictions with a discerning eye. 

For traders and investors looking to delve deeper, one might find intrigue in exploring how the S2F model interacts with other indicators and market dynamics. This intersection could very well hold the key to a more holistic investment strategy in the crypto world.


What is the Stock-to-Flow Model?

The STF model, introduced in 2019 by “Plan B,” assesses the scarcity and potential value of assets like Bitcoin by comparing the current supply to its annual production.

Why is the S2F Model Relevant to Bitcoin? 

Bitcoin’s inherent design includes halving events that restrict its supply, accentuating its scarcity. The S2F model quantifies this scarcity, helping investors understand potential supply-demand dynamics.

How does the S2F Model Predict Bitcoin’s Price? 

The S2F model estimates Bitcoin’s price by examining the relationship between its current supply (stock) and new supply entering the market (flow). 

Are there criticisms of the Stock-to-Flow Model? 

Yes. Critics argue the S2F model over-emphasizes supply, neglects demand, and relies heavily on historical data. Its simplicity may not capture market complexities and black swan events.

Was this Article helpful? Yes No